Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a tool that gathers computer-based processes for mapping, storing and manipulating geographic data, analyzing data real phenomena on Earth, impact prediction and strategic planning. This term is known from the 1960s and the father of GIS is Professor Roger Tomlinson.
GIS will significantly change the rate at which geographic information is produced, updated and distributed. GIS also changes the method of analyzing geographic data. Two important advantages of GIS compared to paper maps are:
- Easily update spatial information.
- Efficiently aggregate multiple data sets into a combined database.
GIS stores information about the real world as a set of thematic layers that can be linked together by geographic features. It is a versatile tool that has been proven to be very valuable in solving many practical problems from setting up the distribution routes of trips to detailed reports for planning applications or simulation of global atmospheric circulation.
Today, there are many GIS applications in the natural environment and industries such as urban planning, human resource management, agriculture, itinerary, meteorology and hydrology, maps, maritime surveillance, environmental impact analysis, and more. In most of this area, GIS plays an important role as a decision support tool for operational planning.
According to the most experienced GIS experts, there are many applications developed in the environment. Scientists use GIS to assess the environment, such as the location and properties of forest trees.
Applying GIS with a more complex level is using GIS's analytical capabilities to model erosion processes to spread pollution in the water or the reaction of a river basin under the influence of heavy rain. Data gathered via GIS applications is vital for protecting the environment.
Meteorology and Hydrology
In this area, GIS is used to map flood risk areas, serving against natural disasters such as flash floods in the downstream areas, identifying storm centers, forecasting flows, determining flood levels. Then use the information to coordinate relief efforts.
Because these applications are complex analytical, spatial data models in image format (raster) dominates.
Agriculture, land management
There is no doubt that GIS data helps create more efficient farming techniques to increase food production in different parts of the world.
Here are some typical applications:
Harvest monitoring, land management systems, commodity forecasts, crop studies, irrigation plans, water quality control.
GIS has significant applicability in the field of transport. For example, Google Maps is a great example of a web-based GIS mapping solution.
In addition, transport infrastructure planning and maintenance is clearly a practical application. But there is now interest in a new area of navigation applications in shipping. This type of feature requires the support of GIS.
GIS can also be applied in the medical field. For example, it shows the fastest route between the current location of the ambulance and the patient in need of emergency, based on traffic data.
Moreover, GIS can also be used as a disease research tool to analyze the causes of disease outbreaks and spreads in the community.
GIS has been applied to locate new branches of the Bank. Currently, the use of GIS is increasing in this area. GIS data plays an important role in planning, organizing, and decision making in the banking industry.
Besides, GIS is a tool to assess risks and insurance purposes, identify with greater accuracy than the areas with the highest or lowest risk.
Electricity, water, gas, telephone services
Vector data is often used in these fields. Automated Mapping and Facility Management (AM-FM) are the largest applications in this area. AM - FM is used to manage the characteristics and locations of cables, valves, etc. These applications require high precision digital maps.
For an organization, GIS technology always plays an essential role in helping manage and use geographic information effectively to meet the operational requirements and program objectives of that organization.